55 years of titles
After the first award
After the founding of New China, the People's Liberation Army began to prepare for the implementation of the military rank system. On November 12, 1952, the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held a meeting and decided to implement the 'four systems' in the army, namely: conscription system, salary system, military rank system, and medal system.
The salary system is implemented in conjunction with the military rank system. Previously, the military implemented a supply system, and there was little difference in material treatment between superiors and superiors. There are large, medium and small stoves in the diet. Cadres at divisional level and above have small stoves, cadres at battalion level and above have medium stoves, and cadres and soldiers below continuous level have big stoves. There are some differences in the food standards of each stove. In terms of dressing, cadres above the regiment and cadres issued woolen military uniforms, while cadres below the battalion issued materials. There are some differences in the monthly allowances received by cadres and soldiers at all levels, but the difference is not significant.
Previously, the only thing that reflected the rank of the army was the position. For example, the platoon leader is the platoon position, the deputy company commander is the deputy company position, and the battalion commander is the battalion position. However, the positions of officials in some agencies are not clear. For example, the staff of the headquarters, the officers of the political department, the assistants of the logistics department, and so on. Due to the need to implement the salary system and military rank system, the ranks of military cadres were assessed in accordance with unified standards in 1952. In January 1955, our army changed from a supply system to a salary system, and cadres received salaries according to their ranks. After the rank assessment, the implementation of the military rank system will be put on the agenda.
In the winter of 1952, the General Cadre Department took the lead, with the participation of the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department, and the Military Affairs Department of the General Staff. Based on the Soviet military rank system, the draft for the implementation of the military rank system was studied and formulated. After repeated deliberation, in January 1955, the Central Military Commission issued the 'Instructions on the Work of Evaluating Military Ranks' again, and finally designated our military ranks as six and nineteen:
The sixth class is the marshal, general, school, lieutenant, sergeant, and soldier.
Marshals are divided into two levels: General Marshal of the People's Republic of China and Marshal of the People's Republic of China.
Generals are divided into four levels: general, general, lieutenant, and major general.
The school officials are divided into four levels: colonel, colonel, lieutenant colonel, and major.
Lieutenant officers are divided into four levels: captain, captain, lieutenant, and second lieutenant.
Sergeants are divided into three levels: sergeant, sergeant, and corporal.
The soldiers are divided into two ranks: superior and private.
According to the regulations of the central government, the lieutenant generals can be referred to as senior generals. Peng Dehuai and others are responsible for the evaluation of military ranks above major general, and the marshal is nominated by the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee (that is, the five secretaries). The reference standards for military rank evaluation are divided into three items:
1. Military merit. 2. Qualifications. 3. Appointment.
However, the actual awarding of titles is slightly different from this scheme. One is that Mao Zedong did not agree to grant him the rank of Generalissimo. At that time, he was the only one who had the qualifications to grant the rank of Generalissimo. Since he firmly refused to accept this rank, the rank of Generalissimo could only be vacant. The second is that there were hundreds of thousands of deputy platoon-level cadres in the army at that time, and they were responsible for the basic-level administrative or technical work of the army. The conditions for granting ensigns were relatively poor. The Military Commission decided to temporarily increase the rank of warrant officer in order to solve the need for granting the rank of deputy platoon-level cadres. . This Warrant Officer rank remained until the abolition of the rank system in 1965.
After the military rank system is determined, the rank assessment of cadres will be put on the agenda. In accordance with the power of appointment and removal of cadres, the list of marshals and generals is determined by the central government, and the list of major generals granted is determined by the general cadres. The list of military ranks granted to officers is proposed by various headquarters, services and arms, and major military regions, and reported to the general cadre department to be unified throughout the army. measure. Subsequently, the whole army was engaged in complex, meticulous and repeated measurement and evaluation work. By the summer of 1955, the list of marshals and generals awarded for the first time was finalized. There were 10 marshals, 10 generals, 55 generals, 175 lieutenants, and 802 major generals. After 1956, there were 2 generals, 2 lieutenants, and 8 major generals.
At the beginning of September 1955, the evaluation work was completed. On September 23, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress held its 22nd meeting and decided to grant Zhu De, Peng Dehuai, Lin Biao, Liu Bocheng, He Long, Chen Yi, Luo Ronghuan, Xu Xiangqian, Nie Rongzhen, Ye Jianying and other 10 marshals, and to grant Zhu De and other 131 people a first-level eight. One medal, Zhu De and other 117 first-level independence medals, Zhu De and other 570 first-level liberation medals.
On the morning of September 27th, Chairman Mao Zedong presided over the ceremony of awarding the rank of marshal and three first-class medals in Huairentang. In the afternoon, Premier Zhou Enlai presided over the ceremony for awarding 1042 generals including Su Yu. On the 28th, Minister Peng Dehuai granted military ranks to some school officers in Beijing. Subsequently, the heads of major units and major military regions awarded military ranks to their school officers and lieutenants. Starting from October 1, the PLA officers and soldiers have successively changed into new styles of uniforms with military ranks, and the army has taken on a new look. For the first time, more than 644,000 people obtained the rank of warrant officer and above, including more than 113,000 warrant officers, more than 498,000 lieutenant-level officers, and more than 32,000 school-level officers. At the beginning, in addition to the top ten, the marshal nominated Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, and Deng Xiaoping. The generals were Tan Zhenlin, Zhang Dingcheng, Deng Zihui, and Li Xiannian. However, they all agreed not to comment. The youngest marshal was Lin Biao, who was 49 years old; the youngest general was Xu Guangda, who was 47 years old; the youngest general was Xiao Hua, who was 39 years old; the youngest lieutenant generals were Liu Xiyuan and Xie Youfa Zhang Chiming is 38 years old; the youngest major general is Wu Zhong, who was 34 years old.
Although everyone was able to work together during the war years, and sometimes despite some troubles due to individual military merits, in the end, they did not get rid of their faces. In the course of the rank evaluation in 1955, some phenomena appeared very impressive. Not so exciting. Mao Zedong said: 'Men do not flick lightly when they have tears, but when they have not yet reached the rating.' He did tell some facts. In the face of fame and fortune, heroes are short of breath.
The PLA experienced a tortuous process in implementing the military rank system. In the 1960s, under the influence of the “Left” ideology of “limiting bourgeois legal rights” at that time, the army began to plan to cancel the military rank system. On July 19, 1964, Mao Zedong heard a report on the abolition of the military rank system in Beidaihe and said: 'Cancel! Get rid of that card. I wanted to get rid of it.' According to his instructions, the Central Military Commission was established.' The Military Rank Salary Reform Group' and drafted the 'Opinions on Canceling the Military Rank System.'
On May 22, 1965, the Ninth Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Third National People's Congress passed the 'Decision on Canceling the Military Rank System of the Chinese People's Liberation Army.' On the 24th, the State Council decided that from June 1st, the People’s Liberation Army will change its cap badge, collar and some military uniforms. 1. All red five-star cap badges and all red collar badges shall be refitted; 2. Liberation caps shall always be worn; 3. Navy clothing shall be changed to dark gray; 4. Western-style dresses originally issued to officers above school shall be abolished; 5. One belt, the original armed belt shall be abolished. Therefore, the appearance of an officer and a soldier can only be distinguished by the size of their coat pockets. Those with four pockets are officers, and those with two pockets are soldiers.
In conjunction with the abolition of the military rank system, the ranks of military cadres were changed to the administrative ranks of state cadres to match the wages of local cadres.
After the end of the 'Cultural Revolution', the army has accumulated many problems, and bloated institutions and aging are prominent problems. If these problems are not resolved, the military rank system will be difficult to implement. Therefore, the re-implementation of the military rank system has gone through nine years of deliberation and preparation.
In the second half of 1982, the leadership of the Central Military Commission carried out reforms and streamlining of the military system. By 1985, the Railway Corps was merged into the Ministry of Railways, the infrastructure engineering corps was abolished, the artillery, armored, and engineering corps were placed under the General Staff, and the military regions were changed from the original Beijing, Jinan, Shenyang, Nanjing, Fuzhou, and Guangzhou. 11 military regions, including Wuhan, Lanzhou, Chengdu, Kunming, and Urumqi, were merged into 7 military regions including Beijing, Jinan, Shenyang, Nanjing, Guangzhou, Lanzhou, and Chengdu. The county People’s Armed Forces Department was placed under the local organization. In the spring of 1983, significant adjustments were made to the leadership groups at the military and division levels, resulting in a reduction in the average age of leading cadres at these two levels and an increase in their knowledge and professionalism.
By the end of 1984, all preparations for the restoration of the military rank system were basically completed. In May 1985, as a transition, officers and volunteers of the People's Liberation Army began to wear new military uniforms with sword-shaped epaulettes. The army and air force were brown-green, and the navy was sea-blue, with the symbol of the service. Navy soldiers wear small black epaulettes with iron anchors.
On April 13, 1988, Deng Xiaoping, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, submitted to the first meeting of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People’s Congress the “Recommendation of the Military Commission of the People’s Republic of China on Awarding the Medal of Honor of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to Retired Army Officers”. Provisions, the Regulations on the Ranks of Officers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (Draft), and the motion confirming the ranks of officers granted from 1955 to 1965. On July 1, the Second Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People's Congress passed the 'Regulations of the Military Commission of the People's Republic of China on Awarding the Honorary Medal of the Chinese People's Liberation Army to Retired Army Officers' and the 'Regulations on the Ranks of Officers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army', and promulgated and implemented . On September 5, the Third Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People's Congress passed the 'Regulations on the Service of Officers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army.' During this period, the General Political Department stepped up the evaluation work.
On September 14, the Central Military Commission held a grand ceremony for the appointment of generals in Huairentang, Zhongnanhai, and awarded them to Hong Xuezhi, Liu Huaqing, Qin Jiwei, Chi Haotian, Yang Baibing, Zhao Nanqi, Xu Xin, Guo Linxiang, You Taizhong, Wang Chenghan, Zhang Zhen, Li Desheng, Liu Zhenhua, Xiang Shouzhi, Wan Haifeng, Wang Hai and other 17 general ranks. The rank evaluation of the major units of the army was also completed at the same time. From September 16th to 20th, various major units successively held award ceremonies. 146 people were awarded the rank of lieutenant general and 1212 were awarded the rank of major general. On October 1, the Chinese People's Liberation Army began to wear the new rank emblem.
In 1988, the military rank system initially stipulated that the military rank was six and eighteen. The sixth class is general, school, lieutenant, non-commissioned officer, sergeant, and soldier. The eighteenth level is a general, lieutenant general, major general; colonel, colonel, lieutenant colonel, major; captain, lieutenant, second lieutenant; master sergeant, professional sergeant; sergeant, sergeant, corporal; senior soldier, private.
In 1993, it was revised to six ranks and nineteen ranks. The first-level generals were abolished, and the sergeant chief (or professional sergeant) was set to rank one to four. The nineteenth level is general, lieutenant general, major general; colonel, colonel, lieutenant colonel, major; captain, lieutenant, second lieutenant; master sergeant (or professional sergeant) from one to four levels; sergeant, sergeant, corporal; superior and private.
In 1997, it was revised to five levels and eighteen levels. The third and tenth levels of military officers remained unchanged. The sergeant chief and noncommissioned officers were merged into noncommissioned officers, and they were divided into junior, middle, and senior levels. Each level was divided into two levels. Two levels, a total of eighteen levels.
(1) Let the title.
Xu Xiangqian was the first to give the title. His main reason was that since the revolution had succeeded, it didn’t matter if he was not a marshal. He wrote a letter to Mao Zedong, but there is no reason not to comment on the biggest comrade in the army as a marshal. A small part of Xu Xiangqian's transfer of the title is to avoid suspicion. The next one is Luo Ronghuan, who is in charge of the evaluation work. He did not agree to be a marshal because he consciously has no military merits. However, Mao Zedong insisted on Luo Ronghuan’s election. He said: 'Comrade Luo Ronghuan is a model of our army’s political work. He was appointed after the Autumn Harvest Uprising. The old comrades of Jinggangshan have never fought for personal fame and wealth for decades. He assisted Comrade Lin Biao in commanding the Battle of Liaoshen and Pingjin in the War of Liberation. This is also obvious to all.' So Luo Ronghuan was elected. Then there is Xu Guangda. After Xu Guangda received the Soviet delegation, he was notified by Zhou Enlai that he would be named a general. He was very excited not because of his election, but because he realized that he should not be elected. He gave Mao Zedong and the Central Committee overnight. The Military Commission wrote a letter asking for a lower standard, only to comment on the general. He also said something like: 'If comrades like Zhou Yiqun, Liu Zhixun, and Duan Dechang do not die, they should be generals.' Zhou Enlai asked He Long to do his job, and Xu Guangda still demanded that his administrative level be lowered to administrative level five. level. Mao Zedong gave an excited and emotional speech for Xu Guangda at the expanded Central Military Commission’s meeting on the work of assessing military ranks: 'Comrades, today I want to introduce you to someone who is willing to lower his rank. He is Comrade Xu Guangda! This is a mirror! A mirror in which communists do nothing for themselves and without self-interest! He will always be a good mirror for our party and our army! Five hundred years ago, there was one in the Ming Dynasty. The general is called Xu Da. He was able to pacify the Central Plains and shake the world. Now, five hundred years later, there is also a general in our People's Army. He is Xu Guangda. He is famous for his high wind and brightness!' Then there is the following. Thunderous applause. Ironically, in 1967, the youngest general who was praised by Mao Zedong was abused for being implicated in the He Long case! On average, up to 79 interrogations a month! Du Manlin and Dang Zhibi, members of the task force, publicly beat Xu Guangda! Xu Guangda was injured in many places on the spot, with broken ribs and blood flowing across his mouth and nose. During the period of serious illness, the task force still insisted on surprise interrogations. Xu Guangda said: 'You framed me and said that I helped He Long come to power, and said that I was the chief of the general staff. It really underestimated me. I am now the Deputy Minister of National Defense. It's not worth it to get a general manager! 'Xu Guangda died on the toilet on the night of 6.3, 1969! So far, no official conclusion has been made about the cause of Xu Guangda's death, which has become a big mystery in the party and the army!
Xu Guangda was upright. In 1965, he discovered Wang Jie, who resembled Lei Feng, but Xiao Hua, director of the General Political Department, was guilty of stealing things for himself. However, Xu Guangda didn't mind! It is a pity that his person cannot die well. One of the generals is Xu Haidong. Xu Haidong has been appointed to be a good man three times in his life. The first time was because Cheng Zihua was appointed by the above. Xu Haidong did not complain at all, and offered to be deputy commander of the army. Xu Baoshan, secretary of the E-Yu-Anhui Provincial Party Committee, was touched enough. The second time, he gave it to Zhang Yunyi, mainly because of Zhang Yunyi's background. This time, he suggested that he had hardly worked anymore after 1940, so he was not suitable for being elected to such a high rank. He recommended Wang Zhen. Xiao Ke, what is interesting is that Xu Guangda recommended these two people to the central government! Xu Haidong once said when he gave the title: 'I remember that Comrades Xu Baoshan and Wu Huanxian have done more than me, but sacrificed prematurely for the revolution. How can I be a general? (Xu Haidong, Wu Huanxian, Xu Baoshan are known as the Four Front Army Liu Guanzhang, who has a very good relationship, is also the three secretary of the Hubei, Henan and Anhui Provincial Committees
Xu Liqing and Sun Yi were given the title of Lieutenant General. Xu Liqing is fully qualified to evaluate generals, and, in accordance with the conditions set by the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, senior cadres of the active army at the regiment level are generally awarded the rank of general. Xu Liqing fully meets the conditions for conferring the rank of general. Peng Dehuai talked to him several times, but he insisted that the central government lower himself to a lieutenant general. Peng Dehuai smiled bitterly and said: 'Others say that I have a bad temper. I think you are worse than me!' Peng Dehuai held a meeting at the Military Commission. When mentioning this incident at the meeting, he said: 'Xu Liqing, I know him, he is very good, he has no thoughts of fame and fortune, and he must do what he says and do what he does.' Mao Zedong continued: 'It's not simple, money, status and honor are the best. To see a person’s thoughts and character, as it has been in ancient times! '.
On the day before the award ceremony, Zhou Enlai specifically called and invited Comrade Xu Liqing to Zhongnanhai for an interview. Zhou said: 'The chairman said that Xu Guangda is a mirror, a mirror of the Communists themselves, and I say you Xu Liqing is also a mirror, a rare good comrade.
Afterwards, Zhou Enlai called the photographer and took a photo with Xu Liqing in his study.
Liu Shaoqi said to Xu Liqing: 'You are a lieutenant general who should be awarded the rank of general but not general.'
Before Xu Liqing died, he was the first political commissar of the Chengdu Military Region. Deng Xiaoping, Chairman of the Military Commission, stated in the funeral report of the Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Yang Yong: 'Comrade Xu Liqing's funeral management and Comrade Yang Yong's funeral management should be considered and arranged.' Participate in the farewell ceremony of Comrade Xu Liqing's remains. He said to all those who attended the memorial service: 'Liqing is my old subordinate and comrade-in-arms, he is a good comrade. Comrade Liqing has strong political thoughts, endures humiliation, does not care about personal status, and is always worth learning from.' Xu Liqing was the only one who made the title successful.
Sun Yi was also an old Red Army who offered to give up his title. This company is known as the famous general Sun Hu. Later, in 1956, China cracked a Taiwan spy case, and the file actually listed this Sun Yi as the target of rebellion. , And said that great results have been achieved. According to Sun Yi himself, at the Tiananmen observatory on National Day that year, Luo Ruiqing, the Minister of Public Security, stared at Sun Yi nine times. He said that until after the 1980s , He only knew about it. After the 1980s, Deng Xiaoping called on veteran military cadres to lead by example and drive the younger generation of the cadre team. However, few of these people moved. Only Sun Yi actively asked to retreat to the second line. The moved chief Yang Dezhi saluted him! Xiaoping later instructed to give Sun Yi the chief position of the military region.
(2) Compete for merit.
The opposite of giving a title is contending for merit. This is no wonder. According to the relevant regulations of the central government at the time, the marshal was at the third administrative level and enjoyed the treatment of Politburo members; the general was at the fourth administrative level and enjoyed the treatment of deputy prime minister; the general was at the fifth administrative level. , Enjoy the treatment of the Secretary-General of the State Council; (general and above can be counted as party and state leaders) lieutenant general at the sixth administrative level, enjoy ministerial treatment; major general at the seventh administrative level, enjoy ministerial medical treatment. Moreover, the lieutenant generals and above are senior generals, who can be equipped with security secretaries, health doctors, chefs, and attendants. It is indeed a lot different. So some people came out to fight. The famous two kings are Wang Bicheng and Wang Jinshan of the New Fourth Army.
Wang Bicheng was a cadre of the Fourth Front Army during the Red Army. His last post before the Long March was the deputy commander of the 89th Division of the 30th Red Army. During the War of Resistance, he was the deputy commander of the Sixth Division of the New Fourth Army. He was at the same level as General Liu Zhen and others. He is the deputy commander of the Seventh Corps. Wang Jinshan was born in the hard-core Red Fourth Army. Before the Long March, his last post was the commander of the 93rd Division of the Red 31st Army. He was at the same level as Chen Geng. During the Anti-Japanese War, he was the deputy commander of the Taiyue Column and the deputy commander of the Second Field and the Third Corps of the Liberation War. Army commander and political commissar. Because of Tan Zhenlin's old subordinates, Wang Bicheng went to Tan Zhenlin and said that Tan Zhenlin promised to help him reflect, and it really reflected that, let the criticism from above be heard. After Wang Bicheng knew about it, he specifically asked Tan Zhenlin to apologize, and Luo Ronghuan asked Tan Zhenlin to explain. Tan Zhenlin didn't blame the king for sure, and said that he had no face. Tan Zhenlin, many of his subordinates said that Boss Tan is on the left, but it is really interesting to his subordinates. Historically, because of the Battle of Lianshui, Wang Bicheng was scolded by Tan Zhenlin. But in the end, Tan Zhenlin found out that he had blamed Wang Bicheng and apologized to Wang Bicheng. This time he took the initiative to help Wang Bicheng appeal. Wang Jinshan also yelled a few times, and was severely criticized by Deng Xiaoping, not dare to stop. To be honest, the quality of senior generals was still very high at that time. The so-called contending for merit was to reflect according to normal channels, and complain at most. Like Major General Bai Zhiwen, when he was the most popular, even Yang Shangkun was his subordinate. Before he was judged as a major general, someone suggested that he should fight for it. Bai Zhiwen said, 'What is there to fight for? How many people have lost their lives. We have survived. If you judge a major general, you should be content. You guys. Think about Comrade Deng Ping (Chief of Staff of the Red Army Corps, sacrificed later, less than 30 years old), and be content.'
The fiercest one is Zhong Wei. He publicly said that his major general's epaulettes were brought to the dog's tail! The highest post of Zhong Wei's Red Army was the director of the political department of the division. He was promoted very quickly during the War of Liberation. He was the commander of the 12th column in the four fields and the level of Huang Yongsheng. Later, the commander of the 49th army of the four fields and the level of Liang Xingchu were lieutenant generals. Therefore, he felt low, so he scolded people. Mao Zedong knew about it. Lin Biao was so angry that he called Zhong Wei to ask if Zhong Wei was a Communist. However, Zhong Wei is really a good person. After the Lushan meeting ended and criticized the so-called military club, Zhong Wei was aggrieved by Peng Dehuai. He also publicly stated that he was a member of the club and was escorted out of the meeting room by Xiao Hua on the spot. The old people in Siye said that Zhong Wei really dares to speak and do. In fact, Mao Zedong knew that Zhong Wei’s military rank was too low. Therefore, Zhong Wei’s use has always been based on the standards of a lieutenant general or even an admiral. He served as the chief of staff of the Beijing Military Region. Deputy, regiment level). Zhong Wei was dismissed from the military post, and he was delegated to Anhui to become the deputy director of the Department of Agriculture. Zhong Wei also laughed and said: 'I am at the same level as Hong Xuezhi this time, and both are generals!' (Hong Xuezhi was delegated to the head of the Jilin Provincial Department of Heavy Industry because of Peng Dehuai's case. Therefore, Zhong Weicai said so. Coincidentally, it was Hong Xuezhi back then. The decentralized place is now where his son Hong Hu made his fortune)
In addition, Duan Suquan was also underestimated. Like Zhong Wei, he was also a veteran who was unwilling to let Peng Dehuai go downhill and was dismissed from class by Xiao Hua. Duan Suquan was the political commissar of the Independent Division during the Red Army period, the commander of the Jehol Military Region in the War of Liberation, and the commander of the eight columns of the four fields. This person has always had a good reputation, but he didn't know how to flatter the leaders. When he was in the Northeast, he offended Lin Biao, Gao Gang and others continuously, so that he was not reused for many years.