American female soldiers do these jobs after joining
As we all know, there are many active female soldiers in the US military, the number has reached about 300,000, and the total strength of the US military is about 1.7 million, which accounts for a large proportion. So, what is the professional of the US military after joining the army? Presumably, many genuine military fans will pay attention to this issue, so this article also follows the trend of military academic research.
First, let's study the background of female officers and soldiers in the US military.
According to the 'Women's Service Action Network' statistics, a total of about 2.5 million women serve in the US Armed Forces. The all-volunteer military (active duty military) divisions are in the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps, the United States Navy, and the United States Air Force, all of which are led by the Department of Defense (DOD).
The mission of the National Defense Women’s Advisory Committee (DACOWITS) is to advise the US Secretary of Defense on matters and policies related to women serving in the US armed forces. DACOWITS reported on February 28, 2018 that as of July 2017, 17.6% of active duty officers and 15.8% of active duty soldiers were women. Historically, the U.S. Air Force has the highest proportion of female soldiers and officers. By 2016, the U.S. Navy had also caught up.
Statistics from the Committee on Foreign Relations (CFR) show that the proportion of female officers in the US Army and the US Navy is 18%, and the number of female officers in the US Marine Corps is at least, only 7%, which is related to the combat missions of the Marine Corps and captures the beach. The mission of the position is indeed too unsuitable for female soldiers. The United States Air Force has the highest proportion of female officers, reaching 21%, which is also well understood. The commanders on the tower, male officers and female officers are responsible, and the combat effectiveness is not much different.
Below we study the military professional positions that American female soldiers mainly undertake.
We divided American female soldiers into two categories: soldiers and officers. At present, American female soldiers can choose any military professional position. Female soldiers can participate in or support military operations, operate weapons and equipment, maintain and repair weapons and equipment, supervise subordinate personnel, and perform technical and support tasks. Therefore, female soldiers can be responsible for administration, warfare, construction, electrical and electronic equipment maintenance, medical care, human resource development, support services, and vehicle mechanics.
After joining the army, American female soldiers must also carry out military professional ability training, and there are strict assessments to determine whether women are suitable for military work. Female soldiers joining the military need high school or equivalent, must be at least 17 years old, and approved by their parents. The active-duty soldiers of the US Army and Navy must not be older than 34 years of age when enlisted in the military. The maximum age of the US Marine Corps is 29 and the recruits of the Air Force cannot exceed 39.
The combat positions of female US military officers include combat special military officers, responsible for planning military operations; engineering, scientific, and technical officers, engaged in various professional fields such as law, atmospheric science, meteorology, biological sciences, and social sciences; administration, administration And administrative officials to supervise the military’s administrative functions; medical personnel are medical professionals, such as nurses, doctors, dentists, and psychologists; human resources development positions, where female officers are responsible for recruitment, placement, and education and training; media and public affairs officers , They produce speeches and events for military personnel and the public; security officers, responsible for protecting military bases and hired personnel and property; logistics professional officers, responsible for managing logistics, transportation, and supplies; transportation professional officers, responsible for safe transportation of personnel and weapons and equipment .
To become a female US military officer, you must obtain a bachelor's degree, which can be obtained by performing military service, participating in the ROTC program of a local university, or participating in an alternate officer school. US military female officers also have age requirements.
The third question, we study what factors have prompted American women to choose the career path of joining the military.
Women don’t like military service for the same reasons as men. According to a 2016 survey of recruits by the US Department of Defense's Joint Advertising, Market Research and Research Office (JAMRS), 73% of female recruits and 58% of male recruits cited travel as a reason for their registration. 52% of female recruits join the army to pay for future education, while only 39% of men are for this reason. Many female soldiers believe that joining the army is a way to help others, and only 39% of men give this reason. 45% of female recruits believe that receiving education in the US military is a reason to join the military, but only 34% of male recruits think so. More women (39%) than men (27%) choose to become members of the military to have a positive impact in the community.
Many reports in the United States have shown that the salary of civilian women in the United States is 'gender difference' compared with men in the same position. For women who work full-time, for every 80 cents earned, men can earn $1, while male and female soldiers The US military earns the same salary and achieves equal pay for equal work. This has not been achieved in the world of professional tennis, but it was first achieved in the US military. No wonder it can attract a large number of American women to join the US military.
However, there is still a gender gap in the promotion of American female soldiers. There are not as many women as men who have been promoted in the US military. US military researchers have found that the reason for this is that female soldiers have not served in the army long enough. Despite this, American female soldiers are able to get more promotion opportunities than women who work in Fortune 500 companies. There have been female generals holding senior command positions such as the deputy chief of staff of the US military service, and female four-star generals have also appeared.
The US Navy and US Air Force are more attractive to women than the Marine Corps and Army. According to Stew Smith, the author of Balanced Career, deciding which military service to join is a personal issue that American girls 'worth studying and thinking.' Because many women regard travel as a reason to join the military, it is not surprising that many female soldiers choose to serve in the Navy. The US Navy is 'the most suitable service for those who like to travel.' The opportunity for the US Navy to rotate overseas is indeed Higher than the other three services. The United States Air Force attracts female soldiers mainly in terms of housing. After all, women have high requirements for quality of life, and the construction of barracks in the United States Air Force is far ahead of all military services.
Fourth, we study what challenges American female soldiers will face in their service careers.
Although women have a long history of serving in the US military, it was not until 2016 that the US Department of Defense lifted all restrictions on women’s participation in the military. Although American female soldiers can now choose all military professional positions, they still face huge challenges in the military. Their participation in the military is relatively small, and their service time is short, which is not enough to support the service life of the official. , So you can't get the benefits of being an officer from career advancement.
For female soldiers, they are at the junior and intermediate/field level, and women have a higher veteran rate than men. The US military has also tried to take measures to increase the retention rate of female soldiers, including measures to increase parental leave. The United States Department of Defense has implemented a maternity leave program. Female soldiers can take maternity leave for 12 consecutive weeks after delivery of all services, and fathers can take 14 days of paternity leave. U.S. female soldiers also have holidays to adopt children. The Advisory Committee on Women’s Enlistment in the Ministry of National Defense revealed that different military services provide different benefits for female active-duty personnel during pregnancy and usually adjust the positions of female soldiers.
However, American female soldiers still face gender discrimination, sexual harassment, and sexual assault in the military, and there are other serious problems that keep women’s recruitment and retention in the military low. For example, bulletproof vests and other equipment are manufactured to suit male body types, and now must be customized according to female bodies. In the United States, many mothers who leave their families to serve in the military will also be criticized.