Overall summary of 55 years of awards
On February 8, 1955, the 'Regulations on the Service of Officers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army,' which included the relevant content of the military rank system, was adopted at the sixth meeting of the Standing Committee of the First National People's Congress and promulgated and implemented by Chairman Mao Zedong.
On August 11, Minister of National Defense Peng Dehuai and Director of the General Political Department Luo Ronghuan issued the 'Instructions Regarding the Evaluation of Military Ranks for Sergeants and Soldiers,' which stipulated the content of the ranks of soldiers, and the whole army officially began the work of evaluating military ranks.
On September 27, 1955, the 22nd meeting of the Standing Committee of the First National People's Congress passed the 'Resolution on Granting the Rank of Marshal of the People's Republic of China.'
Since October 1, 1955, the Chinese People's Liberation Army has begun to wear military rank epaulettes, service types and service symbols, and dress according to the new clothing standard.
On May 1, 1965, the Ninth Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Third National People's Congress passed the 'Decision on Canceling the Military Rank System of the Chinese People's Liberation Army', and the military rank system that had been implemented for 10 years was abolished.
2. Military rank setting
When the military rank system was implemented in 1955, there were 6 levels and 19 levels, namely:
Marshal Level 2: General Marshal of the People's Republic of China, Marshal of the People's Republic of China.
General Level 4: General, General, Lieutenant General, Major General.
Officer level 4: Colonel, Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel, Major.
Lieutenant Officer Level 4: Captain, Captain, Lieutenant, Second Lieutenant.
Sergeant level 3: Sergeant, Sergeant, Corporal.
Soldier Level 2: Superior Soldier, Private Soldier.
However, when the rank was actually awarded, at the request of Mao Zedong himself, the vacancy of the General Marshal was not granted; the increase in the rank of warrant officer was given because of the fact that our army had hundreds of thousands of deputy platoon-level cadres at that time. The title of cadres at the top level.
3. Number of awards
When the title was first awarded in 1955, a total of
175 Lieutenant Generals,
802 major generals,
From 1956 to 1963, 2 generals, 2 lieutenant generals, and 4 major generals were awarded from 1956 to 1963. Between 1960 and 1964, 554 were promoted from colonel to major general. In this way, when the military ranks were cancelled in May 1965, a total of 1,614 people were awarded the rank of general or higher, including 10 marshals, 10 generals, 57 generals, 177 lieutenant generals, and 1,360 major generals. These people are honored by the people of the country. Founding general.
Fourth, the establishment of military ranks and arrangements
The order of the generals and the generals below is basically based on the generals’ positions in the military at the time, in the order of the major military units, followed by the Ministry of National Defense, the headquarters of the Military Commission, the service, the arms, and the military. Major military units such as academies, military regions, and volunteers. Among them, the order of military academies and services has slightly changed. The order of lieutenant generals and major generals in the military region is still based on the original six military regions: Northwest Military Region, Southwest Military Region, East China Military Region, Central South Military Region, North China Military Region, and Northeast Military Region. At the same time, major generals in the system units are ranked according to their position: quasi-corps, general, deputy, quasi-trooper, and divisional levels.
The 1955 Officers’ Service Regulations clearly stipulated: “Each officer position of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army must specify its equivalent rank in the staffing table.” In 1956, the Ministry of National Defense issued the “Order Formation of Officers and Ranks”, stipulating that officers The military ranks are divided into one rank and one rank and one rank and two rank.
The chief of the general staff, the director of the general political department, the general logistics minister, the commander of the service and arms, and the political commissar of the service and arms conferred the ranks of general to general; the deputy minister of defense, the deputy chief of staff, the deputy director of the general political department, and the deputy minister of the general logistics department, Commanders and political commissars of Shenyang, Beijing, Nanjing, Jinan, Guangzhou, and Wuhan Military Regions, deputy positions of services and arms, deputy positions of military and political academies, commanders and political commissars of the Corps were awarded the ranks of general to lieutenant general;
Xinjiang, Tibet, Chengdu, Lanzhou, Kunming, Inner Mongolia military region commanders, political commissars, other military regions and corps deputy positions, service arms, chiefs of staff, political department directors, military region navy and air force commanders, political commissars awarded the rank of lieutenant general to general;
Army commander, political commissar, provincial military commander, political commissar, deputy post of Xinjiang, Tibet, Chengdu, Lanzhou, Kunming, Inner Mongolia military region, other military regions, corps chiefs of staff, and directors of the political department awarded the rank of lieutenant general;
Chief of Staff, Director of Political Department of Xinjiang, Tibet, Chengdu, Lanzhou, Kunming, Inner Mongolia Military Region, Deputy Commander of Military Region Naval and Air Force, Commander, Political Commissar of Naval Base, Deputy Chief of Staff of Other Military Regions, Corps, Services and Arms, Deputy Director of Political Department, Direct Department The minister confers at least the rank of lieutenant general;
Deputy Chief of Staff, Deputy Director of the Political Department of Xinjiang, Tibet, Chengdu, Lanzhou, Kunming, Inner Mongolia Military Region, Chief of Staff of Military Region Naval and Air Force, Director of Political Department, Deputy Commander of Provincial Military Region, Deputy Commander, Deputy Political Commissar, Chief of Military Staff, Political Director of the Department, awarded the rank of Major General to Lieutenant General;
The chief of staff of the provincial military region, the director of the political department, the commander of the division, the political commissar, the director of the military division, the political, and the political department awarded the rank of major general to colonel;
The commander and political commissar of the naval and marine police, the directors of the subordinate divisions of the headquarters, and the directors of the services and arms divisions, political and post-subordinate departments (divisions) conferred the rank of at least general on the colonel;
Deputy commander, deputy political commissar, division chief of staff, director of the political department, deputy chief of staff of the provincial military region, deputy director of the political department, deputy chief of staff of the military, deputy director of the political department, deputy commander of the military division, deputy political commissar, chief of staff, director of the political department Grant the rank of colonel to colonel;
The military commander of navy and air force, political commissar, and director of the subordinate divisions conferred the ranks of colonel to colonel;
The head of the regiment and political commissar conferred the rank of colonel;
The deputy chief of staff of the division, the first-level staff of the headquarters, and assistants confer the ranks of colonel to lieutenant colonel;
Chiefs of military divisions, political divisions, branches of services and section chiefs of some military districts conferred the ranks of lieutenant colonel to colonel;
The deputy section chiefs of the headquarters, services and arms, the section chiefs of the military divisions, and the second-level staff officers shall be conferred the rank of lieutenant colonel at least;
Division chiefs, political section chiefs, military divisions, political deputy directors, 200-bed hospital deans and political commissars confer the ranks of major to lieutenant colonel;
Battalion commander, instructor, air force commander, regiment deputy chief of staff, director of logistics department, third-level warship captain, third-level staff member awarded the rank of major;
The division chiefs of logistics divisions awarded the ranks of major to lieutenant;
Director of Air Force Regiment Pilot and Director of Fourth-level Outpatient Department awarded the captain at least the rank of college;
Company commanders and instructors confer the ranks of captain to captain;
Rank four captain, rank five staff officer conferred the rank of captain;
The ordnance and ad hoc director of the Air Force Battalion awarded the ranks of captain to lieutenant;
The deputy company commander and deputy instructor confer the ranks of lieutenant to captain;
The fifth-class captain, the ordnance, ad hoc, and mechanic of the air force squadron conferred the rank of lieutenant at least;
The platoon leader awarded the ranks of lieutenant to lieutenant;
The first officer of the Air Force and the director of the 50-watt radio station awarded the rank of second lieutenant.
However, due to the first time the rank was awarded, the conditions for the rank evaluation were relatively strict, so that the actual rank of the rank was generally one to two levels lower than the establishment rank. For example, the rank of military commander is lieutenant general, and among the 68 in-service military commanders and political commissars, except for 2 commanders (Chen Mingren, Dong Qiwu) who have been awarded the rank of general, only 5 (Chen Kang, Wu Ruilin, Zhang Tianyun, Zeng Zesheng, Rao Zijian) were awarded the rank of lieutenant general, 59 were awarded the rank of major general, and two others (Liang Jinhua and Liu Xuan) were awarded the rank of colonel, 89.7% of which were lower than the rank of establishment. The rank of division commander is major general, but of the 73 in-service division commanders and political commissars, only 3 were awarded the rank of major general, and 70 were awarded the rank of colonel, accounting for 95.9%. Moreover, since many officers were not promoted normally after the ranks were awarded, this phenomenon has increased unabated.
In 1960, the Ministry of National Defense re-formulated the 'Military Ranks List of Officers' Positions', abolished the one-post and one-rank regulations, and replaced them with multiple titles. Most positions have three ranks. In fact, it is mainly to reduce the lower limit of the original rank. Reduced by one or two levels.
V. Classification of military ranks and titles of military ranks
The 1955 military rank system made the distinction of officers more complicated. According to their professional duties, they were divided into 8 categories: command, politics, technology, military supplies, military doctors, veterinarians, military law, and administration. Command and political officers are further divided into several categories according to service arms. The ranks of various officers are as follows:
1. Commanding officer and political officer Infantry officer: Second lieutenant to general.
Cavalry officer: Second Lieutenant to General.
Artillery Officer: Second Lieutenant to General.
Armored Officer: Second Lieutenant to General.
Engineer Officer: Second Lieutenant to General.
Railway Soldier Officer: Second Lieutenant to General.
Signal Corps Officer: Second Lieutenant to General.
Technical Service Officer: Second Lieutenant to Admiral.
Public Security Army Officer: Second Lieutenant to General.
Navy Officer-Marine Officer: Second Lieutenant to General.
Coastal Officer: Second Lieutenant General.
2. Technical officer: Second Lieutenant to Admiral.
3. Quartermaster: Second Lieutenant to Admiral.
4. Military Medical Officer: Second Lieutenant to Admiral.
5. Veterinary Officer: Second Lieutenant to Admiral.
6. ??Military and French officers: Second Lieutenant to Admiral.
7. Administrative officer: Ensign to Colonel.
The names of naval officers and naval officers, technical, military, medical, veterinarian, military law, and administrative officers are preceded by the names of services and professional services. The ranks of these officers are called lieutenant, technical major, military admiral, etc. For officers of other services and arms, it is stipulated that only the name of the service and arms shall be given before the rank of the general, such as the infantry major general, the public security army lieutenant general, and the air force general. Staff below the school officer, without professional title, are directly referred to as their military rank.
6. Approval and authorization of military ranks
In 1955, the military rank system had higher requirements for the approval and first-time authorization of military ranks.
The military ranks of military officers are granted authority for the first time: the marshal is granted by the president of the country, the generals are granted by the Premier of the State Council, and the colonel and lieutenants are granted by the order of the Minister of Defense.
The authority to approve the promotion of officers: the promotion of second lieutenant, lieutenant, and captain shall be granted by order of the commander and political commissar of the front army and the first-level military region; the promotion of captain, major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel shall be granted by the order of the Ministry of National Defense; the rank of marshal shall be granted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress The decision is granted by the order of the President of the State.
Because of the large scale of our army, the Central Military Commission handed over the promotion of the first lieutenant officer, chief lieutenant, and major officer to the major military district-level chiefs for the approval of the Minister of Defense, and announced it by order of the Minister of Defense.
Seven, military rank signs
In the military rank system implemented in 1955, the design scheme of our army's badges, collar badges and various symbols and other identification signs mainly referred to the Soviet army. Among them, 71 kinds of epaulettes (for officers above the school level are divided into two series: uniform epaulettes and dress and coat epaulettes), and 29 types of collar badges. In addition to the collar badges of army and air force soldiers indicating the rank of the wearer, the collar badges of officers, naval soldiers at all levels and professional sergeants can only be used with epaulettes, and there is no military rank indication. On January 28, 1958, with the approval of the State Council, the Ministry of National Defense issued an order again to make partial changes to the epaulettes, collar badges, cap badges, etc.: the epaulettes were changed to be worn on festivals, gatherings and diplomatic occasions, and usually only worn with the rank and rank symbols. .