Talking about Huangpu Military Uniform and Firearms
Talking about Huangpu Military Uniform and Firearms
Military uniforms are a type of standard clothing, which is very important for military appearance. The style, color and texture of various military uniforms can reflect the contents of politics, military, economy, science and technology at that time. The Huangpu Military Academy has experienced three periods of Huangpu, Nanjing, and Chengdu in the mainland. During the past 20 years, the Huangpu Military Uniform has three styles, Chinese, German, and American, and each style carries a history of the Huangpu School.
Huangpu Military Uniform Photo
On June 16, 1924, the Chinese Kuomintang Army Officer School founded by Sun Yat-sen was officially established on Huangpu Island. The principal Jiang Jieshi presided over the opening ceremony. The school staff and 500 first-stage students listened to the Prime Minister’s speech in person, and the photographer photographed this A moment in history became the classic of Huangpu's image. Because this is the first time that Huangpu teachers and students wear military uniforms in the world, it has attracted great attention from all parties. This photo has also become an important data for the research and verification of the development history of Huangpu military uniforms.
Who is responsible for the design of the Huangpu military uniform? 'Huangpu Military Academy Chronicle Editor' records: 'In March 1924, the preparatory office of the school was appointed to design new military uniforms for military officers and students. Wang Bailing was specifically responsible. The new military uniform was determined to be dignified, convenient and economical. Military uniforms of Germany and the Soviet Union, draw a sketch of the style.' According to Wang Bailing, the director of the professor department of the Huangpu Military Academy (Jiangsu Jiangdu, a Japanese non-commissioned graduate), enrollment of the Huangpu Military Academy was in progress at the time, and the design of the military uniform was imminent. Based on this, he designed a military uniform that suits China's national conditions and resembles a tunic suit. Main features: 1. The lapels and collar buckles are hooks, which can protect the throat, which is both hygienic and free to pitch; 2. The 4 outer pockets of military uniforms can accommodate more items and facilitate the needs of the battlefield; 3. Military uniforms 5 Buckle, outer bag buckle 2 large 2 small; four, officer's belt, can be hung knife pocket and pistol bag, students belt belt; five, officers wear leather boots with spurs, students wear straw shoes and socks, leggings, wear leather shoes when going out Sixth, the color of military uniforms, the officer uses khaki, the students are gray; the armbands replace the vertical shoulder badges, and each army; seven, the military cap is a dome, the head tile is high in the front and low in the back, and the center of the cap wall is decorated with a round blue sky white badge , With hat strap. Europe calls this military cap the 'Silum Muche' cap, 'Silum' means eaves, 'Muche' means a round hat without a brim, literally translated as 'hat with brim', In the 20th century, the Silom Mucet hat was widely used by the military of various countries.
The military uniforms required in the early days of the military academy were all undertaken by Guangzhou Defa Corporation. The earliest military uniforms of Chiang Kai-shek and Wang Bailing were sewn by a Japanese clothing store in Shamian.
Sun Yuanliang, a student of Huangpu Phase 1, recalled: 'In May 1924, two weeks after entering the school for the first time, each person only issued a gray uniform and a pair of military uniforms. They could not be changed... The mosquito nets, military blankets, blankets, etc. were all available. The principal attaches great importance to military instruments and the reputation of the military school, so we changed to yellow khaki school uniforms and leather shoes.' On the second day of the opening ceremony on June 17, the Huangpu first-stage students convened 18 Sichuan students to take photos in Guangzhou. The museum took a group photo to commemorate. In the photo, the Huangpu Phase 1 students were dressed in uniforms, military caps, military uniforms, armbands (left arm), waist belts, leggings, and leather shoes at a glance. This is undoubtedly a precious photo supporting the Huangpu military uniform.
Why did the procurement of Huangpu military uniform stay close? During the preparation of the Huangpu Military Academy, Sun Yat-sen ordered the Ministry of Finance to pay 60,000 yuan for the start-up cost of the military academy. The school building, playground, roads, etc. will be repaired and repaired before considering the others. In the process of preparing for the military academy, Chiang Kai-shek found that the budget for the military uniforms in Guangzhou was expensive, and it was reported that the Shanghai procurement was cheap. Therefore, he sent someone to send a letter to Chen Guofu, who was ill in Shanghai, and ordered him to handle the military uniforms and all military supplies for the military students. , Printed matter and machinery. Indeed, Shanghai’s things, including freight, are one-fifth to one-third cheaper than the local procurement in Guangzhou; the first batch of things is 500 sets of woolen uniforms, woolen coats, leather shoes, hats, leather goods, shirts, etc. The formal customs declaration will be shipped by the transshipment company. Anyone knows that the clothing store manager is doing business, and he puts a white cloth on each military uniform. The customs inspected it and felt that it was particularly dazzling. If it was deemed to be an embargoed military uniform, all of them were detained. Chen received the information anxiously and reported the principal by telegram. The trustees wanted to negotiate with the customs for supervision, and transferred the old acquaintance Ye Zhuotang (People of Zhejiang Fenghua, Shanghai Ruihe Yangxing Comprador, Shanghai Stock Exchange broker), Wang Yiting (Zhejiang Wuxing, Shanghai Chamber of Commerce) Chairman), Shen Tianxin (Huzhou Zhejiang), Yu Qiaqing (Cixi Zhejiang, President of Shanghai General Chamber of Commerce), etc., helped to recover the detained military uniform after more than ten days of hard work. However, there are three things: a belt, a gun belt, and a scabbard. The customs has determined that it is a controlled military product and must be confiscated. Supervisor Xu said to Chen: 'This thing is only meant as a reward for the customs officer, and you don't have to pursue it anymore.' Chen Wuna had no choice but to admit that he was guilty and lost hundreds of dollars. However, even though the military uniforms had been received, they were still not allowed to export, which made Chen worry, and had no way to discuss with the Customs Supervision Office several times. According to the person in the department: 'There is a way to go, but if you want to find a way for yourself, the official family can never be accommodating.' So he asked someone to find out that there is a company in Shanghai that specializes in tax evasion, shipping goods, and The freight is cheaper than the formal customs declaration. When Chen found it, he was afraid that he was unreliable. He sent some people to try something. After a few days, the phone came from Guangzhou. As a result, things arrived as scheduled, and there was nothing on the way. Chen was relieved to hand over this batch of military uniforms and other items completely to the company for shipment. Soon they all arrived in Guangzhou and delivered them to the designated location. Calculated, it was hundreds of yuan cheaper than the formal handling. Later, the military leather goods used by the Huangpu Military Academy and the military uniforms and military blankets of the 1st and 2nd Regiment of the Teaching Corps were all purchased in Shanghai. They were delivered to this company for shipment. Several coats or several sets of cotton coats were bundled into a package. Each package is at least 1 yuan cheaper than the formal customs clearance, and it is safe and simple. With this experience, Chen Cai realized that the customs of the Beijing government era had a lot of drawbacks, and this company was really connected with the sound; not only the customs officers communicated with the company, but also the dock workers, the steamboat compradors, and the sailors. On one occasion, when the military school cargo was on board, it was seen by a newly appointed foreign customs officer and caught people, but because there were few customs officers, it was eventually assimilated by the environment. Another time, when he was found on the pier and found out that he was about to detain people and goods, suddenly two hooligans fought next to each other. This patrol went to persuade him, and waited until the matter was over, and then found the servant, It's already secretly passed. From the above two things, it can be seen that the situation at the customs and the terminal is complicated and subtle. Although Chen managed to get some passports from the Beijing government, he still did not use them. There are also some items that were ordered in Shanghai Yongan and Xianshi companies and shipped from Hong Kong to Guangzhou for delivery. The transportation between Guangzhou and Hong Kong is very convenient. It should be cheaper to order goods from Guangzhou to Hong Kong. However, it is cheaper to order Hong Kong goods from Shanghai, but delivery in Guangzhou is actually one-fifth cheaper than ordering goods from Guangzhou or Hong Kong. Unexpectedly. However, with the progress of the revolutionary situation, the enrollment of the Huangpu Military Academy has continued to increase, and military uniforms have gradually begun to be tendered and purchased in Guangzhou.
A selection of three advertisements from the 1926 'Guangzhou Daily' can be seen.
1. Tender advertisement of the Central Military Politics School: (1) Name and quantity: 1. 500 cotton coats, 2. 10,000 cotton military coats, 3.11,700 military trousers, and 8,000 rubber raincoats Pieces. (2) Obtain the brief and the location of inquiry: Nandi Lingnan Wharf, the Procurement Office of the school on the second floor of the Provincial Office. (3) Bid time: Starting from October 28 of this year and ending on the morning of the same month on the 31st.
2. Notice from the Central Military and Political School: The school must purchase and purchase yellow twill military uniforms, military caps, leggings, black cloth socks, linen shoes, straw shoes, marching pots, etc. The bid regulations are hereby reserved with standard samples. Interested undertakers, please Before the 17th of this month, I came to Lingnan Wharf's Provincial Office to read the articles of association.
3. Bidding advertisements of the Central Military and Political School: (1) Name of bid: 6,000 sets of student gray single military uniforms, 6,000 pairs of rubber-soled shoes, 3,000 student gray military caps, 3,000 student belts, and 3,000 gray leggings for students Pairs, 3,000 student towels, 3,000 sets of student grass-green cloth single military uniforms, 3,000 pairs of student grass-green cloth leggings, 6,000 pairs of black cloth socks, 8,000 pieces of rubber raincoats, 3,000 bags, student grass-green military caps Three thousand tops, three thousand white sheets, six thousand pillowcases, three thousand cloth pillows, and six thousand white shirts. (2) Location for contacting the briefing book: Procurement Office on the second floor of the Provincial Office of the University (South Pier South Pier). (3) Time for bidding: October 6-9 morning.
The source of five hundred guns
At the beginning of the establishment of the Huangpu Military Academy in 1924, the environment was extremely bad, and Guangdong was still divided by the mixed military of various departments. Generally, the military soldiers of the Huangpu Military Academy were flying and arrogant, and they obstructed the progress of the Huangpu Military Academy. The embarrassment of the school’s funding was so extreme that it was issued continuously. None of the 500 guns can be put in place at once.
On May 5th, the first phase of the Huangpu Military Academy students began to take classes. It was unbelievable that the students did not have enough rifles to practice. The next day, Chiang Kai-shek anxiously submitted 'Liao Zhongkai to make up for the bullets from the military academy', saying: 'The school's rifles (except for the 230 shots) are still 350 shots short of them. Among them, 300 shots must be issued before the 15th of this month, otherwise I'm afraid that the scheduled course will be hindered. If it is a last resort, you must pay 300 strokes before the 20th of this month, and the remaining 50 strokes may be paid at the end of the month. Please urge the director of the horse to try to do it. Although it can’t be matched, at least 50 guns per gun are required, as a statement. If the gun received yesterday has no bullets, it can’t be done. In the future, each gun must also be filled with 100 guns.” The name of the horse factory director Chao Jun mentioned in the letter was from Taishan, Guangdong. He joined the League early on and followed Sun Yat-sen in the revolution. He was then the director of Guangdong Shijing Arsenal. At that time, the various military forces in Guangdong struggled to ask the prime minister to fire bullets, and the prime minister approved his request. The warrant for quasi-fired bullets flew like snow flakes, which made the director of the horse poor to cope with it, and asked the prime minister to send as little as possible to avoid harassment by the military. The Prime Minister said to Ma: 'I don't know everything about the actual situation of each army, but it is a legitimate request to issue weapons. As a Grand Marshal, you can not be denied. As for whether you can distribute it, you should handle it yourself. If there is excessive harassment, I certainly support You.' The Prime Minister's remarks were really painful, and Ma had to obey. As early as April 15th, when the Prime Minister visited the factory, he ordered the director of the horse to distribute 500 Huangpu Military Academy rifles, four machine guns and sufficient ammunition. Ma knew that the Prime Minister attached great importance to the party’s newly created military school, and he did not dare to slow it down. But he had no choice but to stock up on 230 guns. In mid-May, Director Ma received another letter from Liao Zhongkai rushing to make up for the military school's ammunition, knowing that the military situation was urgent, but he had exhausted all of it, and together with all the firearms and ammunition of the escort team, the military school was fully allocated. On the morning of May 25th, the military academy held a gun-giving ceremony. Jiang Jieshi said: 'Today all of you comrades and students, have commanded the gun. You must know the meaning of the gun, the way the gun came, and the gun. The purpose of the gun and the structure of the gun. To know the purpose and effectiveness of taking this gun, it is necessary to understand all this reason. If you carry the gun casually in your hand, you don’t know the meaning of the gun. No matter how good the rest of the academic class is, it is useless.' The principal said, all the students understood, and each received a gun, that is, a true soldier, which meant that the beginning of revolutionary armed forces was unsuccessful, and they became successful.
It was not long before the director of the horse set aside the 500 guns of the military school, which was learned for Fan Shisheng (the Eshanian of Yunnan), the commander of the Second Army of the Yunnan Army, and sent the army chief of staff Li Zonghuang (Heqing, Yunnan) to invite the director of the horse Go to the Jiangfen Command, the military headquarters, that there is something important to discuss. When the head of the horse shop entered the room, Fan Jun was lying in bed smoking opium, deliberately ignored, smoked, and suddenly jumped up, pointing at the horse and cursing: 'Director Horse, daring, don’t look at our Yunnan army. Inside, our army came thousands of miles away, and went south to discuss, drove away Chen Jiongming, and robbed back to Guangzhou. If the Grand Marshal did not have our Dian army, how could there be today? I have repeatedly dispatched personnel to ask you to send out ammunition. , Never willing to rush out. Now Jiang Jieshi's Huangpu Military Academy, you will give him 500 rifles, as well as machine guns. The students in the military school are all Maotou children, people from all over the world, want them to fight to protect Guangdong, really God catches the moon. Now I want you to take the rifle from the Huangpu Military Academy on the same day and send it to my headquarters, otherwise it will be against the order, and I will definitely shoot you.' Ma replied: 'I will handle everything, and I will never do anything. The number of ammunition received by your army is the largest. However, the production capacity of the factory is limited. It is inevitable that there will be differences in the distribution time. The firearms issued by the Huangpu Military Academy have no reason to be retrieved. It is impossible to kill me now. 'Fan Jun, seeing that the horse was not in compliance, ordered his men to detain the horse and replace it with a gun.' This matter was learned by the employees in the factory, and everyone supported the factory director with the action of shutting down. When the Prime Minister heard the news, he also sent Marshal Mansion Deng Yanhua (Guangdong Sanshui) to join the army and Huang Huilong (Guangdong Taishan) guards to discuss with Fan Jun, but Fan Lao became angry and refused to release. Only Deng and Huang were allowed to meet the director of the horse. Finally, the Prime Minister sent Secretary-General Yang Shukan (Baxian, Sichuan, Revolutionary Officer of the Revolution of 1911) to meet with Fan Shisheng, commander-in-chief of the Dian Army, Yang Shimin (Binchuan, Yunnan). Fan Shi turned to the rudder, admitted the misunderstanding, and released the director of the horse. .
In early October 1924, the Soviet Union first shipped 8,000 rifles to the military school (with bayonets per gun) and 500 rounds of bullets. Afterwards, aircraft guns and ammunition were brought in many times, armed with a teaching group composed of teachers and students of Huangpu, and the National Revolutionary Army, and then won the victory of the Eastern Expedition and the Northern Expedition, which led to the reorganization of the Northeast, completed the unification cause, and realized what Sun Yat-sen said: ' Such a good foundation, if you really have revolutionary ambitions, you can do a great revolutionary career with only 500 people and 500 guns.' When the Nanjing Central Military Academy held its 10th anniversary celebration, representatives of Huangpu Phase 1 student Guan Linzheng sat at the ceremony On the lower left side of the platform, I looked up and saw the words on both sides of the platform: 'Looking back at ten years, caring for five hundred states (people)' can't help but feel emotional. The language of this couplet is clear and concise, and the regular script is full of ink, but I don't know who came from.